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A struggle started inside the Empire about the decision of of using the Occident as a model of economical progress.. Two factions born from this conflict: one called themselves occidentalist, and the other one Slavophiles. The first ones encouraged an "european route" of progress, while the other ones idealized the country people, and they were determined about a revoluion that should have started from within the country. They wanted to abolish tsar powers and start a new State governed by the farming communities. That's when the "populist" definition were born.
The industrial revolution and its social consequences have led many intellectuals to adopt a marxist ideology. They though that farmers were unaware enough about the Empire's situation, since most of them were illiterate and uneducated, so they propose a revolution that shoiuld have started from the proletarians.
In 1898 the Social-Democratic Labour Party was born but in 1903, it splitted in half because of two different ideologies: one were the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, and the other ones the Mensheviks, led by Martov.